Basic concepts concerning flow kinematics and dynamics together with the control volume approach. Fundamental equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Euler's equations. Navier-Stokes equations. Solutions to the fundamental equations for special flow problems (e.g., flow between two plates, creeping flow). Laminar and turbulent boundary layers. Turbulence theory and models (e.g., mixing length models, k-epsilon models). Density effects and stratified flow. Application to specific flow situations in:

• Meteorology and oceanography (e.g., geostrophic wind, athmospheric boundary layers, Ekman spirals)

• Free-surface flows (e.g., non-uniform flow, dynamic and kinematic waves, flow in water courses and on the surface)

• Circulation in lakes (e.g., wind-induced circulation, seiching)

• Jets and plumes (e.g., evolution of and mixing in jets and plumes, interaction with the ambient, density effects)

• Transport of substances in water including heat (e.g., mixing, transport processes, diffusion, advection)