Regression analysis deals with modelling how one characteristic (height, weight, price, concentration, etc) varies with one or several other characteristics (sex, living area, expenditures, temperature, etc). Linear regression is introduced in the basic course in mathematical statistics but here we expand with, e.g., "how do I check that the model fits the data", "what should I do i it doesn't fit", "how uncertain is it", and "how do I use it to draw conclusions about reality".
When perfoming a survey where people can awnser yes/no or little/just fine/much, or car/bicycle/bus or some other categorical alternative, you cannot use linear regression. Then you need logistic regression instead. This is the topic in the second half of the course.
If you have a data material suitable for analysis using linear or logistic regression, you may analyse it as part of the project.